One frontier of research in surgical robotics is developing an Autonomous Robotic Surgical System (ARSS) which can perform some common surgical tasks. In this way, the surgeon is placed in a supervisory position during the procedure (level 2 of autonomy), and can focus on more complex tasks. This has the potential to improve the quality of the intervention, limiting human errors and fatigue.
An ARSS must guarantee interpretable behavior, i.e. the cause-effect flow governing the robotic operation must be easily understood by a supervising surgeon, for safety and reliability. Moreover, quick response to changes in the anatomical environment is needed to ensure safe execution and failure recovery.